In the world of advanced metal additive manufacturing (AM), there are countless frontiers for innovation. The synergy of software and hardware, and the independent developments made in each of those fields, have long been a cornerstone of Velo3D’s mission. Yet there is another, less frequently talked about avenue for innovation in AM: materials.
Metal AM—specifically laser powder-bed fusion (LPBF), the type of AM employed by Velo3D—is constantly working on the development and qualification of new materials for applications across industries. LPBF is unique in its material development process because all feedstock begins as a powder.
This process can take months and years of development before a new material is qualified and accepted for broad usage. Velo3D has long established itself as an innovator in the materials space and is building a robust portfolio of materials, each suited for different applications.
A Closer Look at Inconel® 718
Inconel® 718 is an incumbent nickel-based superalloy that has been relied upon for years in various industries from space and aerospace to defense and petrochemical. Known for its superb tensile strength, Inconel® 718 can withstand a wide variance of temperatures from deep cryogenic cold up to 1290°F (980°C) depending on the application.
Due to its material properties, Inconel® 718 presents a challenge for subtractive manufacturing. These challenges make it an ideal candidate for metal AM. The Velo3D system in particular has a proven track record with Inconel® 718, allowing engineers to achieve complex geometries and optimize performance in critical parts.
Inconel® 718 is characterized by its superb fatigue, creep, and corrosion resistance in extreme environments, which makes it an ideal application for gas turbines and power processing parts.
Examining HAYNES® 282®
A more recent addition to the Velo3D materials portfolio, Amperprint® 0233 HAYNES® 282® powder is produced by Höganäs under license from Haynes International Inc. HAYNES® 282® and continues the legacy of Inconel® 718 as a nickel-based superalloy but distinguishes itself with the inclusion of chromium and cobalt.
Where HAYNES® 282® really thrives is in high-temperature and high-pressure environments. As a result, HAYNES® 282® is becoming an emerging choice for gas turbine manufacturing. All told, the material shows a good balance of creep strength at high temperatures, thermal stability, weldability, and fabricability. These last two properties, fabricability and weldability, mean that it largely avoids the complications other nickel alloys face, specifically challenges related to cracking and hardening.
Choosing Between the Two
As you can see, Inconel® 718 and HAYNES® 282® largely exhibit many of the same qualities and are used in many of the same applications. The reality is, choosing between the two isn’t so much a decision of one being better than the other, but understanding that both options can be successful. Inconel® 718 is the incumbent and has long been the tried-and-true material choice for a wide range of AM applications—but that doesn’t mean it’s the only option.
The distinguishing point between the two materials comes in their response to temperature. According to Haynes, 718 is being swapped out for HAYNES® 282® for applications at temperatures greater than 1200°F (650°C) “due to the superior strength of 282® alloy at those temperatures as well as its excellent fabricability.”
In certain instances, to achieve the same degree of stability at high temperatures, a part printed using Inconel® 718 may require additional thickness, which can add to an applications overall weight. For example, in industries such as space and aerospace where an engine’s weight can drastically affect performance, HAYNES® 282® could be a better option in critical engine components.
Additionally, when exposed to hydrochloric acid, Inconel® 718 displays a higher rate of corrosion than HAYNES® 282®. This higher resistance to dissolution may make HAYNES® 282® a preferable option in certain chemical and petrochemical applications.
One additional point worth mentioning are the cost considerations associated to each powder, heat treatment, and machining. HAYNES® 282® is roughly USD $20 more per kilogram, while the heat treatments are mostly the same. As for the machining, because of the high temperature properties of HAYNES® 282®, it increases the difficulty of machining, which can in turn increase machining costs.
In an era where supply chains can be threatened and materials may be hard to source, Velo3D is enabling teams to ensure that they’re able to produce the core parts they need by building a diverse portfolio of materials capable of achieving high performance outcomes.
In the end, the question isn’t simply: Inconel® 718 or HAYNES® 282®? Both materials can be successful across an array of applications. Understanding the parameters of the application and what materials are available can help guide engineering teams to make the right material decisions and maximize performance.
The value in having options means finding the material that works best for your specific application, and knowing you have a partner in Velo3D on a permanent journey of innovation to develop new materials to push industries further in their own innovation. Our team of experts is here to help guide those key decisions to help ensure success of these critical components.
For more information on Velo3D’s diverse portfolio of materials, get in touch with a member of our team today.